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Burkov A. F. Research and Development Classification of Ship Electric Drives. Biosci Biotech Res Asia 2015;12(2)
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Research and Development Classification of Ship Electric Drives

Aleksei Fyodorovich Burkov

Far Eastern Federal University, Russia, 690091 Vladivostok, Suchanova Street, 8, Russia.

ABSTRACT: At present the main converters of various types of energy into mechanical energy include electric motors (EM). Therefore, the main type of actuator production mechanism is an electric drive (ED). The development of the ED and the introduction of their modern achievements have led to the need to adjust and complement the existing classification criteria. Analysis of scientific literature allows to draw a conclusion about the lack of uniformity in the classification signs ship ED. To date, despite the rather large number of them, there is no generally accepted classification, including the acceptable range of classification features which best describe the peculiarities of individual ship ED. Not reflected the relationship of ship ED with power actuators used in other industries. The article proposed classification features, combining ship ED by the characteristic structural and operational features and best reflects their individual relationship with the ED used in other branches of economic activity, taking into account as an inherent property of reality, the lack of strict distinctions between the individual ED. Developed on the basis of a theoretical understanding of the variety of facts the classification does not deny, and converts the existing classification of domestic and foreign sources, contributes to the development of marine ED from empirical knowledge to a systematic approach and theoretical synthesis.

KEYWORDS: ship electric drive; classification

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Burkov A. F. Research and Development Classification of Ship Electric Drives. Biosci Biotech Res Asia 2015;12(2)

Introduction

In 1925 in the journal «Shipbuilder» No. 2 (one of the names of the magazine «Shipbuilding») contained an article «Electric auxiliary machinery on vessels of the merchant fleet», in which ship’s auxiliary machinery classified on deck, engine room and service systems (Vorontsov et al., 1979, pp. 27-29).

In the early fifties of the twentieth century was the classification of some ship’s electrical drives (ED) (Tikhonov, 1952). Tail feathers ED divided by the following characteristic features. 1. The nature of a simple, sympathetic and automatic actions. 2. The nature of executive electric motor (EM) with tiller steering – electro mechanical and electro hydraulic. 3. Management system executive EM – controller, contactor, «Federici».

Lifting mechanisms were classified according to the following criteria. 1. The mode of operation is intermittent and of short duration. 2. The number of EM – single-engine and twin-engine. 3. By the nature of current – direct current (DC) and alternating current (AC).

Pumps was classified by purpose (serving the main power plant and system) and the nature of the fluid (water and oil).

In the sixties in (Sievers, 1962) was the classification of the ship ED, which is considered the most common and accepted. All ship ED were divided into three main groups: deck mechanisms; engine and boiler installations and systems; other. In addition, the classification of tail ED, including the classification criterion according to the system of supply: direct power supply from ship’s mains and the generator. Classification of marine superchargers (SN) included, including the following classification criteria: pressure (low medium and high) and productivity (small, medium, and large).

As an example, the classification of modern ship ED (steering gears, anchor-mooring arrangements (AMA), load-lifting mechanisms (LLM)) can lead to classification criteria presented in (Babaev and Yagodkin, 1986).

As a method of knowledge of things and events, enabling progress in the effective interaction with them, the classification of the ship ED, due, primarily, to increase the number of ship ED and their diversity becomes a forced necessity.

Analysis of scientific literature allows to drawing a conclusion about the lack of uniformity in the classification signs ship ED. To date, despite the rather large number of them, there is no generally accepted classification of ship ED including the acceptable range of classification features which best describe the peculiarities of individual ship ED. Not reflected the relationship of ship ED with power actuators used in other industries.

To fill the existing gap in (Burkov, 2008) provides ship classification features ED proposed by the author, which can be taken as a basis when developing the classification system of the ship ED.

In general, classification is a classifier (a system of cells and connections between them), filled with descriptions of concrete objects.

The main purpose (utility function) of the classifications is to ensure each of the classified objects (ship ED). function to execute when the following principal uses of classification: the placement of new facilities (ship ED) is classified in the arrays; the finding of a specific ship ED in these arrays.

For the basis of classification of the ship ED is advisable to take the inductive method, due to the presence of non-systematic set of implementation options objects. In this case, when forming the classifier used save your entries in the division operators and generalizations.

The basis of classification are vessel ED, which is the subject system, where the functions of the subsystems are determined relatively easy.

Appropriate quantitative condition for the development of a classification is the presence of an array of cells on the same hierarchical floor no more than seven, because seven of the cells is, as a rule, the limit of active perception and analysis by users of array of objects.

General classification of ship’s electrical drives

Based on the great diversity due to the design and operational features, ship ED advisable roughly classified into general and specific characteristics – figure 1.

 

figure 1 Figure 1: The structure of the proposed classification of ship ED

Click here to view full figure

Figure 2 presents a general classification of ship ED, according to which all ship ED can be divided according to the variants of ED (figure 2, cell 1), converters of electric energy (CEE) (figure 2, cell 2), EM (figure 2, cell 3), transfer devices (figure 2, cell 4) and mechanical characteristics (figure 2, cell 5).

figure 2 Figure 2: The structure of the general classification of ship ED

Click here to view full figure

 

Classification of ship options ED.

In accordance with the “National industry standard” 50369-92 (The motor drives. Terms and definitions: National industry standard, 1993) the main ED provide the movement of the executive bodies (EB) of the business machines (BM), which perform the main technological operation. Most ship ED (Burkov, 2009) apply to the main.

Auxiliary provide movement ED EB of the BM, supportive technological operations. On the vessels of the auxiliary include, for example, ED of changing the angle or eccentricity of the variable displacement pumps steering electro-hydraulic machines (Babaev and Yagodkin, 1986).

Automation level: 1.2.1 – non-automated; 1.2.2 – automated; 1.2.3 – automatic.

To manual refer ED, in which all control operations are performed by operators. On ships manual ED are rare.

The automated ED part management operations comply with the relevant control devices without operator participation. Most ship ED are automated (Bogoslovsky et al., 1983).

The automatic ED operators perform start and end of the operation. On ships in the automatic modes work, for example, the tail feathers ED with automatic heading control systems (AHCS) (Vlasenko and Stragmaster, 1983), (Berezin and Tetyuev, 1990).

The degree of manageability: 1.3.1 – witness; 1.3.2 – position; 1.3.3 – software-controlled; 1.3.4 – adaptive.

Witness ED provide move EB working machines in accordance with arbitrarily changing the reference signals. On boats to witness include, for example, the tail feathers ED, including a relatively simple AHCS – gyro pilot (GP), working in the “simple” modes (time controlled) (Vlasenko and Stragmaster, 1983), (Sievers, 1975).

Refer to positional ED, providing handle the EB of the machines in the specified position, e.g. ship’s tail feathers ED, including GP, working in “tracking” mode (with control on the way) (Burkov, 2009), (Berezin and Tetyuev, 1990).

Software-controlled ED provide move EB working machines in accordance with predetermined programs. Examples of program-controlled ED on ships are the tail feathers ED, including GP, working in the modes “automatic” (retention vessels in specified courses) (Vlasenko and Stragmaster, 1983), (Berezin and Tetyuev, 1990).

Adaptive ED automatically elect the structure and/or parameters of its control system (CS) when changes are disturbing effects. On ships, for example, in the tail feathers ED found the use of adaptive GP that implement the adaptive control law (adaptation gain, depending on the speed of the ship) (Ostretsov and Klyachko, 2005, pp. 55-59).

Number of speeds: 1.4.1 – single-speed; 1.4.2 – multi-speed.

To single speed ED providing for the movement of the EB working machines with the same fixed speed. Many ship ED are single-speed (Vasiliev and Karaush, 1985).

Multi-speed ED provide the movement of the EB working machines with either of the two or more fixed-bathrooms speeds. Examples of shipboard multi-speed drives are AMA and LLM, which includes a three-speed asynchronous EM and relay-contactor control (RCC) (Mamsurov, 1958, pp. 30-34).

Classification of CEE ship ED.

Type converter: 2.1.1 – discrete (relay); 2.1.2 – analog; 2.1.3 – inverter; 2.1.4 – pulse.

The ED converters with discrete output coordinates CEE take two or three fixed values. Most are simple digital ED with magnetic starters, including contact systems. Most ship ED are discrete (Vasiliev and Karaush, 1985).

The ED analog converters with output coordinates CEE shall take any value from zero to the maximum allowed. Examples of analog ED on ships are ED LLM, trawl winches and AMA variable speed systems “magnetic amplifier – motor” (MA–M) (Azovtsev et al., 1973, pp. 55-57), “generator – motor” (G–M) (Batyaev and Bulatov, 1970, pp. 32-34) and “thyristor converter – motor” (TC–M) (Golovin and Hajdukov, 1988, pp. 6-14).

Inverter ED include in the composition of the CEE inverters voltage or current. On the courts find the application of ED inverter with an intermediate DC link system “inverter frequency converter – asynchronous motor (IFC–AM) (Transistor inverter FREQROL-Z200, 1998).

The pulse ED CEE periodically with adjustable duty cycle enable and disable input to EM voltage or change the parameters of electrical circuits EM. Pulse are, for example, ED system “pulse-width controller – DC motor” (PWC–M).

The technical implementation of converters: 2.2.1 – static; 2.2.2 – electromechanical; 2.2.3 – electromechanotronics.

To include static ED, including static converters of electric energy. On ships have been used, for example, ED LLM and AMA systems TC–M (Winch LE60, 1983).

Electromechanical ED are electromechanical converters of electrical energy. Examples of electromechanical ED on ships are ED LLM, trawl winches and AMA systems G–M and with magnetic stations (magnetic controllers) (Markov et al., 1976).

The composition electromechanotronics ED is a device combining the electromechanical transducer with ensuring the functioning of the electronic components of the control, diagnostics and protection. Electromechanotronics ED have the perspective of the courts.

Classification EM ship ED.

According to the principles of converting electrical energy into mechanical energy: 3.1.1 – engine; 3.1.2 – electromagnetic.

To dynamoelectric include ED in which electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy electrical machines on the basis of interaction of electromagnetic fields and current-carrying conductors. The vast majority of ship ED are dynamoelectric (Bogoslovsky et al., 1983).

The electromagnetic ED electrical energy is converted into mechanical energy devices based on interaction of electromagnetic fields and ferromagnetic bodies. Examples of electromagnetic ED on ships are the actuators that change the position of the rails, fuel pumps of diesel engines.

By the nature of current: 3.2.1 – DC; 3.2.2 – AC.

ED DC contain DC EM. Vessels are used, for example, ED towing and trawl winch systems G–M and “controlled rectifier – DC motor” (CR–M) (Golovin and Hajdukov, 1988, pp. 6-14).

ED AC contain AC EM. The vast majority of marine ED are AC and contain three-phase asynchronous EM (Burkov, 2009).

The classification of the transmission equipment of the ship ED.

According to the method of distribution (transfer) of mechanical energy: 4.1.1 – individual; 4.1.2 – group; 4.1.3 – interconnected; 4.1.4 – many motor.

Refer to the individual ED who have one EM to enable movement of one of EB working machine. Most ship EP are individual (Bogoslovsky et al., 1983).

In group ED one EM provides movement EB of several BM or more EB one BM. For example, ED lathes rotary motion of the spindle and the translational movement of the cutter is provided with one EM.

Interconnected ED include several electrically or mechanically interconnected ED at which work is supported a predetermined ratio of their speeds, loads or provision of EB BM. Examples of interrelated ED are ED mechanisms of rotation or of movement of cranes with multiple EM. Interrelated ED includes electrical shafts, providing simultaneous movement of two or more EB BM that does not have mechanical linkage.

Many motor ED contain several EM, the mechanical connection between them is done via EB BM. To many motor include, for example, ED many trawl winches. To many motor and differential are ED, in which the speed and torque at EB BM algebraically summed by a mechanical differential.

By type of gear devices: 4.2.1 – mechanical (4.2.1.1 – gearless; 4.2.1.2 – gear); 4.2.2 – hydraulic.

ED with mechanical transmission devices have a rigid mechanical connection EM EB of the BM. Vessels are widely used gearless and geared ED. A large group of gearless ship ED be ED MS (Burkov, 2009). To marine gear ED include, for example, pie and screw electromechanical steering (ES) actuators (Bogoslovsky et al., 1983).

Some ship ED with mechanical transmission devices belong to the flywheel, i.e. contain flywheels, for example ED compressors (Sievers, 1975).

Hydraulic transmission device drives typically include: pumps, mechanically connected with EM; a hydraulic device, mechanically connected to the EB of the BM; the piping system between the pumps and hydraulic devices. Examples of hydraulic ED are plunger and vane steering electro-hydraulic (EH) drives with variable displacement pumps (Burkov, 2009).

Regulation coordinates the movement: 4.3.1 – unregulated; 4.3.2 – adjustable.

Most ship ED are unregulated (Vasiliev and Karaush, 1985). Unregulated ED (with one working speed, which varies only as a result of perturbations) do not provide managed change coordinates the movement of EB BM.

Adjustable ED (with adjustable working speed, which changes control action) provide managed change coordinates the movement of EB BM. The regulated ship ED include, for example, many ED deck machinery (Mamsurov, 1958, pp. 30-34).

By movement type: 4.4.1 – rotational; 4.4.2 – translational; 4.4.3 – reciprocating.

EP provide rotational motion rotational motion EB of the BM. Examples of such ED on ships are many ED superchargers.

To ED translational motion ED are providing a reciprocating linear motion of EB BM. To ship ED translational motions include, for example ED sluice doors.

ED reciprocating motion to provide reciprocating motion of EB BM. Examples ED reciprocating movements on ships are ED reciprocating compressors (Sievers, 1975).

Ship ED, regardless of movement type EB (rotational, translational or reciprocating), and classified according to the nature of the movement: .1 – continuous; .2 – discrete.

ED continuous movements provide a continuous movement of EB BM. Many ship ED are characterized by continuous movements (Bogoslovsky et al., 1983).

ED discrete movements provide a discrete displacement of EB BM. To ship ED discrete movements include, for example, ED control gates (Labzin, 1971).

In the direction of motion: 4.5.1 – irreversible; 4.5.2 – reversible.

Irreversible ship ED provide movement EB of the BM in one direction only. Most ship ED refers to non-reversible.

Reverse ship ED provide movement EB of the BM in either of two opposite directions. To reverse ship ED include, for example, side and deck ED (Burkov, 2009).

 By the presence of a braking device (driven clutch): 4.6.1 – without braking device (clutch); 4.6.2 – with brake (clutch).

The ED without mechanical braking devices part does not contain a braking devices (couplings). Such ED includes most marine drives (Bogoslovsky et al., 1983).

To ED braking devices (controllable couplings) are ED, the mechanical part which comprises a braking device (clutch). To ED braking devices include, for example, ED LLM and AMA (Burkov, 2009).

Classification of types of mechanical characteristics.

Torque does not depend on the angular velocity. Capacity ED is directly proportional to the angular velocity. Such mechanical characteristics have ED hoist LLM, compressors at work on injection system with constant pressure, etc.

Torque proportional to angular velocity. Capacity ED is proportional to the square of the angular velocity. Under certain conditions determined by the properties of systems, such mechanical characteristics have ED piston blowers, gear pumps, etc.

Torque is proportional to the second degree of the angular velocity. The power of the EP varies in proportion to the third power of the angular velocity. Such mechanical characteristics are ED of the fans, centrifugal blowers, etc.

Torque varies inversely as the angular velocity. Capacity ED is constant. Such mechanical properties include ED mechanisms of rotation of the spindles of machine tools, etc.

Other. Such ED torques, and power from great moments and powers specified in clauses 5.1-5.4 (ED wave lifts, towing winches, etc.).

Special classification of ship electric drives

By type: 1.1 – deck; 1.2 – side; 1.3 – machine and system; 1.4 – service (figure 3).

To deck EP primarily include marine ED LLM, mechanisms of closing hatches and ramps, AMA.

Side ED include, first ED of steering and propulsion mechanisms, stabilizing gear, controllable pitch propellers (CPP).

To machine and system are ED mechanisms serving the power plant and ship systems for general and special purposes (heeling system of the ice-breakers or cargo system of tanker).

Service ED include ED mechanisms galley, workshops, laundries, etc. (Russian maritime register of shipping, 2008).

By functionality (figure 3).

Classification of ship ED on this special trait depends on the type of ED. For example, ED AMA are functionally classified as ED anchor mechanisms, capstans, windlasses, combined mechanisms.

Fairly widespread combined ED (anchor mechanisms with mooring drums (windlasses), anchor-mooring capstans, anchor-mooring winches, etc.) (Burkov, 2009).

According to the degree of responsibility: 3.1 – responsible (3.1.1 – the first category, 3.1.2 – second degree); 3.2 – non-critical; 3.3 – to maintain comfortable conditions; 3.4 – other (figure 3).

 

figure 3 Figure 3: The structure of the special classification of ship ED

Click here to view full figure

According to the requirements of Russian Maritime register of shipping (Russian maritime register of shipping, 2008) to responsible devices include ship the device for normal operation which ensures the safety of navigation, the safety of persons on the vessel, persons and cargo safety. Responsible device devices are divided into first and second categories.

Responsible devices of the first category, is the device that should always be in running state (on) to ensure the movement and handling of the vessel. These include steering mechanisms, hydraulic pumps CPP systems, pumps, main and auxiliary engines and turbines, etc.

To responsible devices of the second category includes devices that do not need to be constantly working to ensure the movement and handling, but which are necessary to ensure the safety of the ship. These devices must be ready to immediately bring them into action. These devices include: windlasses, pumps pumping fuel and equipment for the preparation of fuels and lubricants, compressors starting and control air, other devices necessary to ensure the purpose of the vessel in accordance with the class symbol.

Non-critical devices are devices which temporarily disabling not reduce the safe navigation of the vessel, the safety of persons on the vessel, persons and cargo safety.

For devices intended to maintain comfortable conditions of habitability on board the ship shall be a ship of provision refrigeration plants, devices for heating and cooking, water supply systems and sanitary systems.

Other devices include electric equipment of the technological mechanisms of vessels used for the processing of living resources of the sea and not occupied by crystals, as well as the electrical equipment of the technological mechanisms of fishing vessels.

On modes of operation: 4.1 – long; 4.2 – short; 4.3 – intermittent; 4.4 – intermittent, with the influence of the starting processes; 4.5 – intermittent, starting with the influence of processes and electric brakes; 4.6 – other (figure 3).

Main modes of operation of the ship ED model are determined by the modes of EM, state regulated industry standards and “International Electro technical Commission” (Rotating electrical machines. Nominal data and specifications: National industry standard 52776, 2007).

In continuous mode (S1) EM work at constant loads with a duration sufficient to reach all parts EM almost steady thermal state.

Intermittent modes (S2) characterized by the fact that the periods of work EM with the same exertion alternating with periods of outages EM. The hours EM is not enough to achieve almost steady thermal state, followed by a rest duration, sufficient to ensure that the temperature of the machine is equal to the temperature of the cooling medium with an accuracy of 2 K. the Recommended time values work EM in short-term (S2) nominal modes are 10, 30, 60 and 90 min.

With intermittent periodic modes (S3) intermittent periods of work EM with the same exertion alternating with periods of outages EM, and as the working periods and times of rest, not so long to temperatures exceeding EM could reach steady-state values. In these modes, cycles of works such that the starting current does not significantly influence pre-elevated temperatures. The S3 state is characterized by the coefficient cyclic ed kc.

The coefficient kc is determined by the formula

frmla-1

In formulas (1) and (2) Δtw– working time EM; Δt0 – stopping or power off time EM;  T c– cycle time.

In intermittent mode, the cycle time does not exceed 10 min. Recommended values kc EM: 15, 25, 40 and 60

Intermittent operation starts (S4) are characterized by a sequence of identical operating cycles, each of which contains a relatively long start, time of operation at constant load and a time of peace.

The coefficient kc of the model S4 is determined by the formula

frmla-2

In formulas (3) and (4)  Δts– start time (acceleration) EM.

Intermittent periodic modes with electric braking (S5) are characterized by a sequence of identical operating cycles, each consisting of start time, time of operation at constant load, a time of electric braking and resting time.

The coefficient cyclic model S5 mode is determined by the formula

frmla-3

In formulas (5) and (6) Δtb  – time of electric braking EM.

Other modes of ship ED modes are determined by the model modes EM with symbols S6 (continuous periodic regimes with short-term loads), S7 (continuous periodic modes with electric braking), S8 (continuous periodic modes with related changes of load and speed), S9 (modes with non-periodic changes of loads and speeds) and S10 (modes with discrete constant loads and speeds) (Rotating electrical machines. Nominal data and specifications: National industry standard 52776, 2007).

Table 1 shows the basic model and possible modes of operation ED ship machinery.

Table 1: Typical modes of operation of the ship ED

# Name ED Modes of operation
S1 S2 S3 S4 S5 Other
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8
1 Anchor mechanisms + (+)
2 Spires + (+) (+)
3 Mooring winches + (+) (+) (+) (+)
4 Hoist GPM (+) (+) (+) +
5 Turning mechanisms of cranes (+) +
6 Mechanisms launching appliances for lifeboats and rafts +
7 Mechanisms of closure of holds and ramps +
8 Towing winches + (+) (+)
9 Trawl winches + (+) (+)
10 Openentry winches (+) +
11 Steering gear (+) (+) +
12 Thrusters +
13 Shaft-turning devices +
14 Compressors starting air (+) + (+)
15 Fuel pumps

+ (+)
16 Oil transfer pumps + –17
Separators fuel (+) (+) +
18 Oil separators (+) + (+)
19 Cooling pumps +
20 Cargo pumps (+) (+) +
21 Fans + (+)
22 Bilge pumps (+) + (+)
23 Ballast pumps (+) + (+)
24 Fire pumps + (+)

 

In columns 3-8 table “+” – presence of the ground operation ED, and “–” – absence. In parentheses is indicated the presence of possible modes of operation.

The location of the working axis: 5.1 – vertical; 5.2 – horizontal; 5.3 – other (figure 3).

The vertical ED working axis of EB are arranged vertically. To ED with vertical locations working axes of EB include, for example, deck ED turning mechanisms of cranes, machine and system ED, cooling and fire pumps (Burkov, 2009).

Horizontal ED have horizontal working axis EB. Examples ED with horizontal locations working axes EB are the side ED thrusters, deck ED hoist LLP (Sievers, 1975).

The rest of the ED working axis EB other than vertical and horizontal locations.

Some ship ED are also classified by additional special features that are unique to this ED. For example, the tail feathers ED has the following additional classification criteria (Babaev and Yagodkin, 1986).

The helm features: 6.1 – active; 6.2 – passive (6.2.1 – ordinary, 6.2.2 – handlebars-tips).

In turn tail feathers ED with ordinary passive rudders are classified by the shape of the rudder blade and the degree of compensation on simple, halfbalans and balance (Sievers, 1975).

In addition, the tail feathers ED with ordinary passive rudders are classified according to the profile of the rudder blade on a plate and profile (Burkov, 2009).

Conclusion

The analysis of scientific-technical sources and academic literature leads to the conclusion about the lack of uniformity in the classification signs ship ED. To date there is no generally accepted classification, including the acceptable range of classification features which best describe the peculiarities of individual ship ED. Not reflected the relationship of ship ED with the actuators used in other industries.

On the basis of the analysis proposed classification features, combining ship ED by the characteristic structural and operational features and best reflects their individual characteristics, the relationship with the ED used in other branches of economic activity, taking into account as an inherent property of reality, the lack of strict distinctions between the individual ED.

As a basis for construction classifications of ship ED adopted the inductive method, due to the presence of non-systematic set of implementation options and the use of formative operators of division and generalization. The generated tree structure of classifications from a single vertex. Thus, all objects classifications (ship ED) perform the same function – to drive the EB of BM and control this movement in order to implement technological processes. Since any of the objects is a system that consists of subsystems that perform various functions within the system, therefore, the classification objects can be nodes (bases) of their own classifications.

Developed on the basis of a theoretical understanding of the variety of facts the classification is most fully covers the classification features of the ship ED, is used as a tool for linking ship ED and clarification of the guidance in quantitative and functional diversity. Expresses the system inherent mapped to the actual condition of the ship ED and causing their fixed properties and relations, the organization of the prerequisites for the correct prediction of the main directions of development. The proposed classification does not deny, and complements the existing, listed in domestic and foreign sources. Contributes to the development of marine ED from empirical knowledge to a systematic approach and theoretical synthesis. This classification of ship ED is a natural dynamic classification performed on significant species forming characteristics, which allows us to reduce the diversity of marine ED to a small number of groups and thereby to simplify their study, the technical development and further understanding of the development of ship ED. Contributes to a more informed approach to the development of the theory and practice of ship ED.

The classification is an expanded picture of the modern condition of the vessel ED, stimulates the development of the theoretical aspects of the research and allows you to make reasonable predictions still relatively unknown facts or laws, is a qualitative leap in their development.

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