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Karami A, ghidari P. S, Miandari A, Shoghli A, Farhood G. K. Assess the Knowledge and Attitude of Barbers Toward HIV / AIDS Infection. Biosci Biotechnol Res Asia 2015;12(3)
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Assess the Knowledge and Attitude of Barbers Toward HIV / AIDS Infection

Afsaneh Karami1, Parvin Shiri Ghidari2*,  Ahad Miandari3, Alireza Shoghli4, Goudarz koli Farhood5  

  1Zanjan University of Medical Sciences, Zanjan, Iran.

DOI : http://dx.doi.org/10.13005/bbra/1901

ABSTRACT: AIDS, including emerging disease that has no cure has been discovered for it and primary prevention is the only way to avoid it, Barbers are those who use sharp tools as a means for work and contamination of these devices is effective at infecting others. This study aimed to determine the knowledge, attitude and practice of the male and female barber carried about AIDS prevention in Zavjan. Methods: In this cross - sectional study involving questionnaires to examine the knowledge and attitude about AIDS among male and female barbers in Zanjan city who were selected randomly distributed the necessary information. Statistical analysis was then extracted information and considered. In this study we evaluated information of 375 questionnaires, of which among them 4.42 percent were male and 6.57 percent were female barbers. The average age of men is 34.85 ± 47 years, the average age of women is 34.25± 9.36 years and the mean age of the patients studied 36.9 ± 25.34 years.4.26 of low level of knowledge, 3.28% of moderate of knowledge and 4.45 percent had good knowledge. In attitude part 1.26 percent positive attitude and 1.62 percent acceptable attitude, and 7.11 percent had moderate attitude, knowledge and attitudes have positive relationship between gender, level of education and years of education. The results of this study showed that knowledge of the subjects is at relatively low levels, and among people with low literacy and the education and men and those with a history of less do not have AIDS majority of people in an appropriate level of awareness the propose future studies will also be considered in addition to the knowledge and attitude of the people.

KEYWORDS: Acquired Immune Deficiency Virus; knowledge; attitudes; beauticians; Zanjan

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Karami A, ghidari P. S, Miandari A, Shoghli A, Farhood G. K. Assess the Knowledge and Attitude of Barbers Toward HIV / AIDS Infection. Biosci Biotechnol Res Asia 2015;12(3)

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Introduction

AIDS, including emerging disease that has no cure has been discovered for it and the only way to avoid it is primary prevention (1-2) when the first official report on AIDS was published 40 years ago no one knew the most devastating epidemics in human history born (3).The sudden emergence of AIDS, hope the medical world who believed they could eradicate all infectious diseases into desperation (4) medical community his greatest triumph in the past half century the eradication of smallpox and AIDS knows no doubt the most catastrophic defeat the scourge of human society since World War, AIDS, we are faced with a disaster that destroyed its destructive effects millions of people hope and opportunity to develop and improve the quality of life wasted. (5)

The incidence of the disease among US homosexuals in America 1981, it seemed that social group and in particular AIDS and certain geographical area is limited. But the emergence of a new model of disease transmission through sexual contact and intravenous drug abuse to drug showed that AIDS was a global problem and not limited to a country or a particular group (6).AIDS is undoubtedly the most important emerging infectious disease in the late twentieth century forms So until about three decades ago, there was even one case of it, but in less than 20 years has affected more than 70 million people affected The condition of the main obstacles to the development of communities and society is more active and productive population (7)Since currently there is no vaccine or treatment is not possible, prevention is the only way to deal with it and the most important way to prevent it is training. The first step in training is public awareness and the attitude and belief that ultimately lead to changes in behavior, this training is successful when is based on the facts available the society. Methods to achieve this reality,is collecting information from the population in the society, which leads to the selection of the most appropriate way to teach (8)9) in Iran and other countries, several studies have been conducted to assess public awareness of – studies show a wide range of knowledge in different populations, so researchers said aware of the population of 6 to 80 percent (10-11)

Barbers, include the owners that use sharp tools as a means in work and contamination of these devices is effective at infecting others according to their 1000 annual studies of occupational exposure are infected with the (12). Therefore, it is necessary for the study to determine the knowledge, attitude of male and female barbers about AIDS prevention that carried on in Zanjan. Therefore, this study aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of male and female barbers in Zanjan in 2013 about AIDS and knowing more about designed the factors associated with it.

Kind of study: This study was a descriptive study. Study population: The population studied was all barbers working in the city.

According to the following formula and references: P = 0.5 d = 0.05 α = 0.05

fig-1

The sample was calculated 384.

Sampling: the level of knowledge and attitude questionnaire:

The questionnaire includes 17 questions about demographic information as well as awareness of AIDS and 15 questions in relation to the attitude of barbers in the field of AIDS and its validity was confirmed by the respective professors and its reliability by test-retest (r=0.86) the control consciousness of a score was given to each correct answer the questions and those who answer the questions correctly were 75 percent above the good level,

50 to 75 percent of moderate and low level was defined as less than 50% in the attitude of the correct option 3, option 2 The idea and the wrong option was awarded 1 point and percentage of scores more than 80% completely positive attitude, percent attitude acceptable 60 to 80 percent between 40 and 60 percent attitude and scores below 40 were considered poor attitude. The questionnaire is attached.

Procedure

In this study, the spatial scale on the basis of scientific resources and disinfection prepared under the supervision of the barbers and distributed among 20 of them validity was assessed 0.86 that after the preparation of the questionnaire referred to the Union names Zanjan Barbers address all Barbers Zanjan prepared by the student is responsible for helping women to barber with 2 people, During July and August 2014 progressively and on the basis of random samples referred to salons and then to see comments questionnaires among the barbers who wish to participate in this study questionnaire distributed after the completion of the questionnaire collection and data mining software and SPSS and calculate the average percentage analysis and T-test and chi-square analyzed. Data analysis: Data obtained analyzed using SPSS software. For quantitative variables, determine the range, mean, standard deviation and other essential items P Value, extracted. The P Value considered with value less than or equal to 0.05 (p ≤0.05).

Findings

In this study, 390 of hairdressers completed questionnaires that 15 of them excluded due to incomplete questionnaire and 375 questionnaires of them analyzed, of which 42.4 percent were male barbers and 57.6 percent were female barbers. The average age of men 34.85 ± 9.47 years, the average age of women 33.80 ± 9.28 years and the mean age of the whole people studied were 34.25 ± 9.36 years.Among the questions to assess the level of awareness of questions relating to the transmission of HIV through needle with 80.8 percent most correct answer and then, questions 15 and 1 that the transmission of the virus through a hairdryer and eating in the 79.7 and 77.3 respectively common dishes percent were rows. In contrast had the lowest response to Question 14, 8 and 7, respectively, 26.9, 37.3 and 38.9 respectively of the correct answer. (Table 4-1)

Among the options the attitude, the “relationship between AIDS and sex issues should be transparent to the young people.” The correct answer was most 72.8 of the option “I may someday infect. “The 44.5 of the most incorrect answers (Table 2-4)

But, overall, 26.4% had of low level knowledge, 28.3% of moderate level of knowledge and 45.4 percent had good knowledge. In between the sexes also mean knowledge women 65.9± 24.0 and men 57.5 ± 27.9  was the difference between the two groups was statistically significant (p=0.0001) among groups age 32-40 years of age with the greatest knowledge of the average score 47.7± 31.2 and the lowest score for the aged above 56 years with an average score of 2/31 ± 7/47 was (p=0.075) The average score of knowledge among people who were illiterate 7/34 ± 8/38 and the average score of those with a university education had a 71.6± 21.2 was the difference between people with different educational levels was statistically significant (p=0.0001) Average score of knowledge in people who had AIDS education 71.6± 21.2 and in those who had a history of training 52.2± 27.1 was (P=0.0001) (Table 3.4). Positive attitude is the attitude of 26.1, 62.1 and 11.7 percent of the acceptable attitude percent had moderate attitude of the average attitude of the participants 73.8 ± 10.1 between the sexes in the mean attitude among women 75.2 ± 10.0 and among men 71.9 ± 9.8age groups, the highest scores were in the age range 32-40 years, as well as those who had a college education mean attitude higher than those with a lower education level (Table 4.4)

Table 1: Frequency response questions on assessing the level of awareness among the studied people

Rows Question correct incorrect
Number percent Number percent
1 Does HIV transmit through eating utensils with someone who has AIDS? 290 77.3 85 22.7
2 Does HIV transmit through needles and syringes used by someone else? 303 80.8 72 19.2
3 Does HIV transmit through the use of sharp tools and tattooing needles that someone else has already used? 73.9 277 98 26.1
4 Does consistent condom use can prevent HIV transmission in sexual relations? 192 51.2 183 48.8
5 Does HIV transmit through mother-to-child with (son of the stomach)? 216 57.6 159 42.4
6 Does HIV transmit through mosquito bites? 140 37.3 235 62.7
7 Does HIV transmit through sneezing, coughing and saliva of people with the AIDS virus? 229 61.1 146 38.9
8 Does HIV transmit through kissing and hugging and shaking hands with people with the AIDS virus? 235 62.7 140 37.3
9 Whether for prevention of HIV, there is a vaccine? 253 67.5 122 32.5
10 Is AIDS has any cure? 229 61.1 146 38.9
11 Anyone who regularly appears healthy may be infected with AIDS? 225 60 150 40
12 Does the risk of HIV decrease through sex with not HIV-infected people who do not have other sexual partners? 200 53.3 175 46.7
13 Does HIV transmit through the knife used in barbershops? 263 70.1 112 29.9
14 Does an AIDS transmit through the scissors used in barbershops? 111 29.6 264 70.4
15 Does HIV transmit through the hair used in hair? 299 79.7 76 20.3
16 Does HIV transmit through the comb and brush used in hair? 249 66.4 126 33.6
17 Does HIV transmit via the hairdresser to others? 258 68.3 199 31.7

 

Table 2: Frequency of responses to questions on attitudes among subjects

Row Item Correct I don’t have any idea Incorrect
Number Percent Number Percent Number Percent
1 Issues related to AIDS education must start from schools. 248 66.1 57 15.2 69 18.4
2 Young people are more vulnerable to HIV infection. 246 65.6 74 19.7 55 14.7
3 People with AIDS like others can participate in society. 185 49.3 112 29.9 78 20.8
4 I am a person with AIDS, my fellow classmates. 86 22.9 139 37.1 150 40
5 The relationship between AIDS and sexuality should be transparent to young people. 273 72.8 52 13.9 50 13.3
6 In recent years, sexual relations outside of marriage among young people is increasing. 263 70.1 72 19.2 40 10.7
7 Sexual relations outside of marriage should not be there. 199 53.1 121 32.3 55 14.7
8 AIDS in Western countries is not our country. 145 33.7 121 32.3 109 29.1
9 I, too, may one day become infected. 83 22.2 125 33.3 167 44.5
10 There is no AIDS patient in the family shame. 111 29.6 144 38.4 120 32
11 People with AIDS like other people to be infected with HIV. 65 17.4 159 42.4 151 40.3
12 AIDS patients, not in public, secret and isolate themselves from others. 188 50.1 125 33.3 62 16.5
13 AIDS is a punishment from God for those who have sexual relations outside of marriage. 141 37.6 121 32.3 113 30.1
14 I am ashamed of providing condoms. 196 52.2 105 28 74 19.7
15 I think the risk of HIV infection may be present for family or my friends. 167 44.5 130 34.7 78

 

Table 3: Mean and Standard deviationof knowledge among people in some of the variables among studied people

Group Mean Standard deviation P-value
Male 57.5 27.9 0.0001
Female 65.9 24.0
Age Less than 24 59.4 23.9 0.075
24-32 62.1 21.8
32-40 70.4 25.0
40-48 62.2 27.0
48-56 51.5 30.1
Top 56 47.7 31.2
Education Illiterate 28.8 34.7 0.0001
High school diploma 45.5 28,3
Diploma 68.8 19.7
Collegiate 71.4 27.9
History of education have 71.6 21.2 0.0001
Not have 52.0 27.1

 

Table 4: The mean and standard deviation score of attitude among some of the variables studied

Group Mean Standard deviation P-value
Male 71.91 9.8 0.0001
Female 75.27 10.0
Age Less than 24 71.89 7.12 0.075
24-32 73.36 9.15
32-40 76.02 10.43
40-48 74.83 9.71
48-56 70.47 11.57
Top 56 69.30 13.20
Education Illiterate 67.66 6.82 0.0001
High school diploma 65.62 10.84
Diploma 76.94 7.95
Collegiate 77.61 8.64
History of education have 77.27 7.9 0.0001
Not have 70.07 10.7

 

Discussion and conclusion

This study was a descriptive study that aimed to assess the knowledge and attitudes of Zanjan barbers towards HIV. The results of this study showed that less than half of the people who have good knowledge about a quarter of people with low level despite this level knowing that most people are relatively poor attitude was very positive and acceptable, contrary to the findings of our study 76% of Mahmoud Karimi good knowledge and 49% of the samples had a good attitude.(13) or that in another study by Mahmud as knowledge, attitude and practice of the barber was aimed at AIDS prevention in 50% and 48.43% of them had good knowledge and 43.4 percent average yield poor attitude in this study were between knowledge and attitude, attitude and practice with regard to experience significant relationship was observed (14). The difference in results may be due to differences in knowledge assessment tool, sample size and the economic and cultural issues. In this study, parsley and colleagues barber’s awareness about the prevention and control of AIDS, the 8.98% were good, while about 4.36% of them had wrong information and attitude, (51) In our study, knowledge and attitude of women to better than men do, which is in line with the parsley and colleagues (51). In our study who had attended training classes, Knowledge and attitude had better control of disease prevention. In this study, it was found that education about diseases transmitted hairdressers hairdresser correction needs to expand, which in the area of health care workers have an important role. And those who also had a history of previous education on AIDS knowledge and attitudes were more favorable effect of education on knowledge and attitude of barbers in the study were included in the study for the Bichari and colleagues that the impact of education on knowledge and attitude of Barbers Birjand on AIDS took place, in this study, the training sessions of 10 to 15 people in the class were provided in health centers, the results showed that education on awareness and attitudes Barbers Birjand had a great impact. (52) In the present study it was observed that the level of education significantly AIDS awareness and attitudes towards that this result is expected respectively. Among the age group 32-40 years age group with the greatest knowledge of the average score and the lowest score was in the age range of 56 years, with an average score. From these findings it can be concluded that in this age range, according to which the people are at risk At the same time experience Working in a variety of ways given the necessary information on AIDS and older than it is due to this that are not so prone to AIDS Less information than others and younger people with less work experience, The opportunity to acquire the necessary information has not been obtained. Suggestions: The results of this study showed that knowledge of the subjects at relatively low levels, and among less educated people, men and those who have no history of educational Know less and therefore should be considered more targeted training programs but the attitude of most people is desirable propose In future studies, in addition to knowledge, attitude and practice regarding preventive measures attitudes and awareness of AIDS and also to evaluate the performance of the as well as training programs for raising awareness beauticians and especially those in the study had low awareness level.

Ethical considerations

  1. The approval of the Ethics Committee of Research Department of Zanjan University of Medical Sciences and Health Services.
  2. Obtaining written informed consent and legal patients for the study.
  3. Confidentiality of participant’s information
  4. Official permission from the hospital authorities
  5. Provide an overview of results to patients and nurses
  6. Privacy of participants.

Acknowledgments

In collaboration with the University of Medical Sciences in Zanjan which funded the costs of the project.

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