Manuscript accepted on :
Published online on: 21-12-2015
Tynyshbaj Nurlan Tolenovich, Makhatov Bolatkhan Makhatovich, Iskhan Kajrat Zhaleluly
Kazakh National Agricultural University, Almaty, 8 Abay St., 050010, Republic of Kazakhstan
ABSTRACT: In thoroughbred horsebreeding upbringing and creating horse-breeding centers in number of 30-50 heads a breeding mare in nature Kazakhstan, there is an opportunity, to grow up domestic high quality quick young growth of thoroughbred breeds of horses which could speak at the international races, including European countries. The grown-up domestic young growth of thoroughbred breeds will not concede in anything to Kazakhstan horses, grown up in England and Ireland whereas to these countries go to buy horses people from around the world. For example, thousands of successful, high-ranking and rich people enjoy competitions of thoroughbred roadster breeds of horses participate in developed countries of Europe only in races. For some days tens of millions of foreign currency come to the organizing country. In France and the United Arab Emirates from roadster breed races fourth part of the state budget income comes. For example, annually FRANS GALOP jockey club receives 9 billion euro. Apparently, in developed countries of Europe, smooth races turned into an elite type of equestrian sport, as well as highly profitable business. On cash cycle the horse-racing industry is a comparable production,as well as a pollution-free one. For example, prize fund of World Cup on smooth races which took place on March 26, 2012 in the city of Dubai exceeded 26 million dollars, and in 2014 – 28 million dollars.
KEYWORDS: quick; races; breeding; selection; exit of foals; manufacturing stallions; breeding mare; import; export; marketDownload this article as:
|Copy the following to cite this article:
Tolenovich T. N, Makhatovich M. B, Zhaleluly I. K. Current State of Kazakhstan Thoroughbred Horsebreeding. Biosci Biotech Res Asia 2015;12(2)
|Copy the following to cite this URL:
In thoroughbred horsebreeding of Europe and CIS countries, now high quality breeding manufacturing stallions and mares of thoroughbred roadster (English) breed, are widely used as breeding qualities betterment of domestic saddle horses of sports direction for smooth races .
Therefore are in quality betterment of English saddle horses domestic livestock at horse-breeding centers and horse-breeding farms of different forms of Kazakhstan Republic ownership .
At the same time, are in increased demand from private enterprises different form of ownership and private owners of Republic of Kazakhstan. Production effectiveness from breeding use of breeding manufacturing stallions and mare of thoroughbred roadster (English) breed, can be defined in comparison to their posterity with indexes of quickness qualities of thoroughbred horsebreeding saddle sports horses posterity of Europe, CIS and Republic of Kazakhstan .
Proceeding from the principle of intermediate inheritance of quantitative and qualitative signs, posterity of thoroughbred roadster (English) breed breeding manufacturing stallions in horse-breeding centers, private enterprises of different ownership forms and private owners of Republic of Kazakhstan, is in initial stage of development [4-6].
Controlled mating on farms usually produce from one breeding manufacturing stallion up to 11-12 foals a year. Thus at least, the average size of stud making structure has to make 5-7 heads breeding manufacturing stallions and 30-50 heads of breeding mares of parent structure. Then an exit of breeding young growth in horse-breeding center 75,0-80,0% or 75-80 heads for 100 mares a year will be average .
Under such circumstances cultivation and cultivation of thoroughbred roadster breeds horses in Kazakhstan annually it is possible to receive padding production from each breeding manufacturing stallion of about 13-15 foals a year. Then within 5-7 years it will be possible to increase livestock high quality breeding young growth. That efficiency of cultivation and cultivation of English roadster breed horses will be higher and profitable .
Therefore in Kazakhstan, on cultivation and cultivation of domestic thoroughbred roadster (English) breed horses, the making structure with high quality and quick breeding horses from Europe and CIS countries i.e. if it is constantly engaged in import of high quality quick horses of this breed from these countries has to fill up the plants. At the same time that careful scheduling of breeding work and realization of these installations with constant control of their productivity can provide a high level of horsebreeding of Kazakhstan and receiving high-class production .
Now given that type of equestrian sport and business is not completely developed in the territory of CIS countries and at above the listed circumstances can increase prestige of our Republic and become good source of income. So, for example:
– first, since the market of horses (cost) in Russia is zero and therefore with rather low tools it is possible to buy outstanding mares.
– secondly, any groom in Kazakhstan will work for 300 US dollars a month while in England the same worker receives up to 3 000 US dollars, not to mention trainers and jockeys who need to be paid not less than 8-10 thousand US dollars a month.
Table 1: Costs of manufacturing stallions and mares of parent structure purchases
|Gender and age group||Livestock quantity||Average price
in thousands of c.u.
in thousands of c.u.
|Economic constructions||400 000|
Thus, if we receive every year in general 40 heads of foals (an exit of 75,0-80,0%), from them to leave about 5-10 heads on self-repair for replenishment of stud making structure, and 30-35 heads on breeding sale:
– at one-year-old age it is possible to gain income from 10 to 15 thousand c.u. for each head, maybe more:
– that, at two-year age this income will increase twice.
Now our neighbors from the East – China, Malaziya, Singapore, South Korea, Mongolia, closely started being engaged in cultivation of bloodstocks . To deliver them from Europe is far, and from America it is expensive. Therefore they started delivering them from Russian Federation, but unstable situation in the Caucasus frightens them [11-13].
If horses are near, in Republic, and besides they will meet the requirements of European standard, demand on Kazakhstan domestic horses will be provided. Therefore horse breeders from China and South Korea come to Kazakhstan, in hope to find horses suitable to their conditions of keeping [14-16].
In this work materials of the state-of-the-art review about current state of thoroughbred (English) roadster breed horses are given. With studying of their high-quality and quantitative changes, distribution on different categories of farms and on lines, quantity of exported and imported horses which occurred in breed for the last period from 2009 to 2014 in CIS countries and Kazakhstan is provided [17-20].
During analyzed period of state horsebreeding of thoroughbred riding in CIS countries and Kazakhstan it was led by studying them according to system of centralized breeding accounting for All-Russian research institute of horse breeding and for Kazakhstan. The state-of-the-art review is carried out on the basis of documents of primary breeding account and according to breeding books (International Stud Book Committee – I.S.B.C.), arrived from these states [21-24].
First of all, we give dynamics of breeding thoroughbred riding manufacturing stallions and mares number as of 2009 to 2014 for idea of development scales of thoroughbred roadster breed in the states and CIS countries and including Kazakhstan (table 2).
Table 2 :Dynamics of horse number in CIS countries as of 2009 to 2014
|2010 year||2011 year||2012 year||2014 year|
According to data provided in the table it is visible that leading positions of Russia and Ukraine on the number of livestock of breed making structure in spite of the fact that for the analyzed period in these countries any regularity in change of number of livestock is net revealed. Dynamics of thoroughbred roadster breed stallions and mares number changed as towards increase, as well as reduction. In Russia there is a noticeable reduction of livestock in 2012, in comparison with 2009 [25-27].
Tendency of increase in number of thoroughbred mares is revealed only in Kazakhstan and in Kyrgyzstan. It should be noted that if Kyrgyzstan is presented in centralized breeding accounting of All-Russian research institute of horse breeding by two breeding farms and two private owners, in Kazakhstan thoroughbred horse breeding develops at rough rates [28-30].
However the vast majority of Kazakhstan horse owners , as well as in other states, are limited to acquisition of horses of race age for participation in smooth professional races and in national types of equestrian sport. Nevertheless, considering the developed tendency, it is possible to assume that in the near future breeding manufacturing stallions and mares livestock in Kazakhstan will increase considerably every year [31-33].
Georgia is presented by one horse-breeding center in which livestock with small fluctuations of number by years of the analyzed period, in 2014 remained almost at the level of 2009. In Moldova and in Azerbaijan it is still registered on one private owner .
According to centralized system of breeding accounting for bloodstocks of All-Russian horse breeding research institute, in the majority of analyzed countries the tendency of private owners number growth is observed [35-36]. If in 2014 in private possession 170 mares that made 10,3% from were registered total number respectively 225 heads, or 13,6%. Distribution of the analyzed mare livestock of bloodstocks on different categories of farms and private owners is given in table 3.
Table 3 :Distribution of thoroughbred mares on different categories of CIS and Kazakhstan farms
|Other categories of farms||
For comparison we will note that according to the previous analysis of breed condition in 2008 in private possession 146 mares that made 6,4% of total number of mares in breed was registered .
Share of mares of different farm categories from the total number of mares in breed, by data for 2014, is illustrated in chart. Share of mares of different farm categories from the total number of mares in breed in 2014 .
|Figure 1: Share of mares of different farm categories from the total number of mares in breed in 2014|
Linear structure of thoroughbred roadster breed horses continues to change as in qualitative, and in quantitative sense due to attenuation of old lines and acquisition of representatives of new lines . In thoroughbred horsebreeding of CIS countries and Kazakhstan there are descendants Nortern Dansera, Native Dansera, Nearko and Nazrulla .
Bringing all these 4 stallions – ancestors of own lines – are successors of old world famous line of Felaris through various branches . Distribution of analyzed bloodstock livestock of CIS and Kazakhstan on lines is given in table 4.
Table 4: Distribution of thoroughbred saddle horses of CIS and Kazakhstan on lines
|Mén O Uora||39||9.4||180||8.2||192||6.8|
Analysis of import and export dynamics of roadster breeds showed that the main buyers are private horse owners of Russia and Kazakhstan (table 5).
Table 5 :Quantity of imported and exported horses in CIS countries as of 1998 to 2014
The quantity of exported horses in Russia and Ukraine is connected with wholesale realiztion of horses to South Korea and China. Horse owners of Kazakhstan for the analysed period imported 10 heads of stallion, and horse owners of Kyrgyzstan imported only one stallion mentioned above. Such countries as Azerbaijan, Georgia and Moldova, for the analyzed four-year period of access to the world thoroughbred horsebreeding market had none.
In Kazakhstan with development of equestrian sport and growth of bloodstock import, demand for quick horses of roadster breeds considerably increased. Increased also profitability of riding thoroughbred horsebreeding therefore in Kazakhstan began more accelerated its development. Therefore a basis of high-quality improvement and cultivation of domestic bloodstocks is purposeful work of selection and breeding business of thoroughbred horsebreeding in conditions of Kazakhstan. At the same time, for increase of breeding and quick qualities and increase in domestic livestock, it is necessary to introduce constantly in production new in technology of thoroughbred domestic breeds maintenance.
- Vitt V.O. Practice and theory of thoroughbred horse-breeding. M., 1957, 272 p.
- Pehrn Eh.M. Genetic bases of thoroughbred roadster breed improvement in USSR. Diss. doctors of agricultural sciences, VNIIK, 1977, 332 pages.
- Pearson P.B. A line breeding program for horse breeding. J. Heredity. 1953, 185-191.
- Duser J. Dedivost exterierieru koni. Zivocisna vyroba, 15(XLIV), 3, 1970, 197-203.
- Terpilowsbi I., Sobesek Z. Problem prewidlawoy ocony reproduktorow pelney irrwi angieltiej na tie arosnicowanto cechy wesesnesei dojraswania ich praychewia. 1983, 102, 1, 53-60.
- Pehrn Eh.M. Genetic bases of thoroughbred roadster breed improvement in USSR. W. All-union scientific research institute of Horse breeding, 1978, T.3, S. 126-171.
- Ignat’eva M.B. Breeding work with a thoroughbred roadster breed of horses in the USSR. Collected edition of scientific works of Horse breeding all-union scientific research institute. M., 1958, T.22, b.2, P. 164-237.
- Ianglois B. Analyse statistique ot genetiquc des gains des pur sang angioic de troic ons denc ice courden platos franecico. Annales de genetiquc ot de genetiquc ot de celection animale, 1975, 7. 4: 387-408.
- Pehrn Eh.M. Variability and heritability of playfulness at horses of a thoroughbred roadster breed. Source: Theory and practice of horse breed improvement. Col.Ed. Sci. W. All-union scientific research institute of Horse breeding. M., 1971, T.25. P. 98-103.
- Pehrn Eh.M. About playfulness of thoroughbred saddle horses. Horse breeding and equestrian sport. 1968, #7, P.24-25.
- Pehrn Eh.M. Prospects of thoroughbred roadster breed development. Horse breeding and equestrian sport. 1973, #5, P.15-17.
- Pehrn Eh.M. On improvement method of breeding work planning in horse breeding of USSR. Source: Materials XXXIII of annual conference of the European association on animal husbandry. L., 1982, 7 p.
- Gerbel’ D.O. On certain issues concerning horsebreeding business. Horsebreeding and hunting. 1873, #1, P. 37-54.
- SchieleE. Araber in Europa. Geschichte und Zucht des eblen arabiscgen Pferdes. Vunchen, 1973, 308 p.
- Khitenkov G.G. Breeding matter in horse breeding. M., 1940, 166 p.
- Flad J.E. Das Araberpferd. Leipzig, 1977, 148 s.
- Urusov S. P. The book on horse of each horsebreeder, the horse breeder, a horseowner and the fan of a horse. SPb., 1911, T.I, 752 pages.
- Raswan C. Trinker der Liifte. OLMS, 1995, 288 s.
- Flad J.E. Die aralische Vollblutzucht in Polen. Tierzuchter. 1958, #2, S 21-24.
- Koptev V. I. Materials for history of Russian horsebreeding. M., 1887, 941 p.
- Sirian Arabian Stud Book. Damaskus, 1990, Vol. I, P. 393.
- Raswan C. Trinker der Liifte. JLMS? 1995? 288 s.
- Pruski W. Dwa wieki polskiej hodowli koni arabskich (1778-1978) I jij sukcesy na swiecie. Warszawa, 1983, – 388 p.
- Schiele E. Pferde ans Arabien. Traum und Erfullung. Arabische Pferde. 1983, №3, S. 223-227.
- Dubenskii D. Horse plants of the European Russia, Caucasus and Kazakhstan. Historical sketch of their development. SPb., 1896, 354 p.
- Zezyulinsky N. Historical research about horsebreeding matter in Russia. SPb., 1893, ed. II, 224 p.
- Vitt V.O. From history of the Russian horsebreeding. M., 1952, 360 p.
- Terry D. An Encyclopedia of the Russian Arabian Horse. New York, 1985, 211 p.
- Zezyulinsky N. Historical research about horsebreeding matter in Russia. SPb., 1893, ed. III, 220 p.
- Archer R., Pearson C., Covey C. The Crabbet Arabian Stud. Alexander Heriot G. Co. Ltd, 1978, 352 p.
- Shemarykin E.I. Prospects of horse breeding of Russia in the XXI century. Thesis Divovo, 2000, P.I, Page 18-22.
- Drevemo S.T., Dalin G. Equine locomotion: The peproducidility of gait in Standardbread trotters, Equine Vet. J., 1980, Vjl. 12, №2.
- Kobluk C.N., Horney F.D., Schnurr D. Use of high – speed cinematograpgy and computer generated gait diagrama for the study of equine hindlimb kinematics, Equine Veterinary Journal, 1989, Vol. 21. №1.
- Schryver H.F., Bartel D.L. Lokomotion in the horse, kinematics and axternal and internal forces in the normal equine digit in the walk and trot, American Journal of Veterinaxy Research, 1978.
- Schmaltr R. Anftomie des Pferdes, Zschr. t Anat., bb 76, 1928.
- Langlois B., Froidevaux I. Analyse des liaisons entre la morphologie et l aptitude au gallop, au trot et au saut d obstacles chez le cheval, Ann. Genet. Selanim., 1978, t. 10.
- Ocsag I. ‘’free Jumping as means of sport testing’’, Proceedings of the Hungarian Research for Animal Husbandry, 1977, t.3, №1.
- Dufosset I.M., Langlois B. Analyse statistique du geste a l obstacle de 122 chevaux de selle francais et interet du iugement du saut en liberte, E.N.V. Alfort, I.N.R.A., Jouy-en-Josas, 1984, t.21.
- Lich D. Studying of interrelations between step length, frequency, speed of movement and morphometric indicators at stallions thoroughbred the riding. translated from English M, VASHNIL, 1986, 211 pages.
- Instruction on valuation of breeding horses of factory breeds. M., 1991, 38 p.
- Courses Elevage, 2006 – 2012.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.